Steel or Aluminium Frame?

Steel versus aluminium is a never-ending debate in the bike touring world, and the question is largely one of personal preference. We’ve tried touring bikes made of both materials, and see pros and cons to each option.

Our classic steel touring bike.
A classic steel touring bike.

Steel – It’s the traditional choice, tends to be the favoured material of high-end custom bike builders and is renowned for giving a lively, almost springy ride. Compared to aluminium, steel is also a relatively straight forward material to weld and this is a key part of the pro-steel argument.

The logic goes that you’re more likely to find someone who can fix damage to your frame en route if it’s made of steel, rather than aluminium. That’s true to some degree but a lot depends on the skill of the welder and the severity of the problem.

In Cambodia, we were able to find a welder who could fix small cracks in our steel frames. The cracks were then repaired a second time in Australia. At the same time, we had some of the drop-outs and mounting points for luggage racks repaired as well. They had corroded away.

It was nice to be able to repair our much-loved bicycles. It’s also possible to argue that we might not have faced these problems in the first place, if we had chosen an aluminium frame. The cause of the cracks was a small welding error when the bikes were initially built, while the corrosion was caused by paint rubbing off our steel frames, allowing rust to set in.

If you find yourself with a more seriously damaged steel bicycle, it might not be possible to find someone with the appropriate welding skills and understanding of bicycles to make the repair. For seriously warped and damaged frames (after a crash, for example), it’s almost certainly better to look into buying a new frame or having one shipped to you, rather than trying to bend it back into shape.

Aluminium bike
Andrew on his aluminium touring bike.

Aluminium – Aluminium touring frames are generally a little bit cheaper, a touch lighter and give a firmer ride than steel.

They’re also immune from rust, which means you don’t need to be as vigilant about covering up small chips and nicks to the paint as you do with a steel bike.

Sometimes people say that aluminium frames are inherently weaker than steel frames but unless the bicycle in question is particularly old (in which case an aluminium frame can be more vulnerable to fatigue cracks), its strength comes much more from the design and overall build quality than the base material.

The Bottom Line

Either a steel or an aluminium frame can be good for touring. What is certain is that you should choose an all-metal frame. Don’t get a bike made of carbon fibre or titanium. They are expensive and not easily repaired.

More than the material, you should focus on getting a bike that feels comfortable to ride and a bike that is backed by a company with good customer service in case something does go wrong. Ask yourself:

  • Will this company send me replacement parts if necessary?
  • Are the bikes that they make solid, well designed and well tested, so that cracks from use are unlikely?

The answer to both questions – whether you choose steel or aluminium – should be yes.

 

Comments

  1. John
    15th May 2012 at 5:12 pm #

    Nobody I’m aware of is making a carbon fiber frame that would be suitable for touring. If they did, or do someday, carbon might NOT be such a bad choice though. True, it could never be repaired by any village welders or the like– and in most cases can’t really be repaired by ANYONE if there’s significant frame damage. But the strength of these frames is incredible, well beyond a normal aluminum or steel frame– anyone doubting that should check out this page detailing frame failure testing by Santa Cruz bike company: http://www.pinkbike.com/news/santa-cruz-bicycles-test-lab.html
    The other comment I wanted to make is that if you can find one and can afford it (as mentioned above, it’s true they’re pricey), I would consider titanium to possibly be the best touring frame material overall. They can be made lighter and stiffer than even a very good steel frame, while at the same time being far more durable in terms of dent resistance than any aluminum frame and also than most steel frames (unless you’re consider the old plumbing-pipe style Schwinn frames from the 1960’s or something). And of course, titanium not only doesn’t rust, but it is basically immune to ANY sort of normal corrosion including the oxidation that you can see on aluminum in extreme circumstances. I bike commute in Minnesota on a titanium cyclocross frame, in widely varying weather conditions including snow with salt on the roads, and on some pretty bad road surfaces, and it has proven to be “bullet-proof”. And no nicks, dents or scratches when I do things like accidentally bump into the top tube with my steel shoe cleat when dismounting from the bike.

    • friedel
      17th May 2012 at 9:40 am #

      Titanium is so much more expensive. There are probably advantages but I imagine the vast majority of people could better spend the extra cash on improved racks, panniers, etc… and for all but the most avid lifetime-tourers, a decent steel or aluminium bike should last a good 10+ years anyway, if not far longer

      To each his own though!

  2. Simon
    12th August 2012 at 10:58 pm #

    I have switched from a steel framed tourer to Aluminium and to be perfectly honest i think size is more important than frame material .. if the bike fits you well then it will be comfortable over long distances regardless of what the frame is made from … Santos are a very well respected bicycle manufaturer and they sell more aluminium bikes than steel

    Simon

  3. Hugo
    24th August 2012 at 7:10 am #

    Just read an entry on the Surly web site (http://surlybikes.com/info_hole/spew/kickstands_on_long_haul_truckers) about people who have “crushed their chainstays” by overtightening a bolt while fitting a bike stand. That didn’t say much for the frame’s robustness to me, but more alarmingly, it then said they had thereby “destroyed their frame”. What does that say about the ability to repair a steel frame, even on such a died-in-the-wool tourer as a LHT?

  4. Hughonabike
    17th February 2013 at 5:33 pm #

    You’d be very unfortunate indeed to damage a frame while touring. Finding anyone who can repair a frame, any frame would just be sheer luck. I reckon , best to go with a frame you feel most comfortable with and if it breaks, bin it and buy a new one. Just make sure you break it near a bike shop on a week day.

    • Michae
      31st January 2014 at 12:59 am #

      I’ve red so much about the necessity of using a heavy and sturdy bike for long touring trips. Few years back with some heart trepidation I decided to use my regular carbon frame road bike with sporty mavic wheels to travel across Europe and guess what – nothing bad happened! Since then I made all my touring on this bicycle including 7 thousand km long trek across USA this spring. Not a single problem and no puntures on my bonetrager hard cased slick tires. Now I am planning to go from Lisbon to Beijing and yes – I am thinking about using the same bike. I admit though I always stay on smooth asphalt roads and my luggage is reduced to absolute minimum.

  5. David
    26th July 2014 at 12:59 pm #

    I think there was a time in the 90s when Alu frames were just appearing int he mainstream where they just weren’t very good outside the high-end race stuff – harsh and bumpy and prone to breaking!

    But alu tubing has advanced so much since then that, although I still love the feel of a good classic steel frame in a retro sort of way, I’m really not a subscriber to the ‘steel is real hype’. Remember than modern steel frames have been engineered to be stiffer than before, narrowing the gap still further between that material and aluminium. The most high tech steel frames even have thin tube walls and oversized tubes actually reducing toughness and making the material more aluminium-like in use.

    If steel was THAT great more brands would offer it on at least one or two models and slap a premium.

  6. mark
    18th November 2014 at 2:36 am #

    The whole “it’s hard to weld aluminum” bs, is exactly that…bs. I’ve welded both, chromemoly and Aluminum both have certain things you need to do to ensure a proper weld that any decent welder knows. Both materials are welded routinely by welders all over the world.

  7. Lumberjake
    15th January 2015 at 6:25 am #

    Here is my opinion. Yes,I know not every aluminum bike is lighter than steel or that steel will not ALWAYS outlast aluminum but each metal has its accepted advantages and disadvantages in general.
    Aluminum is generally lighter, stiffer, perhaps even stronger in the area of impact strength but this has more to do with its larger diameter tubing. Which reminds me, I find it annoying when someone declares aluminum is not stiffer than steel but rather it geometry when specifically talking about bikes which leads one to assume we are talking about the tubing of a frame, yes, thats true but aluminum frames are nearly always fatter because they are aluminum and must not bend as easily out of fear of too much flex/fatigueing.
    Back on topic.
    Steel has the advantage of a fatigue limit whereas aluminum has zero,it will fail no matter the amount its worked, it has a limited life. I think this is a biggie ifyou aren’t sponsored and not always buying the latest and greatest. Steel is easier to repair and can be repaired in far more places on the planet.
    Steel can be cold worked back to being straight depending on damage. Many favour the smoother ride steel is known for especially on long distances however, steel is heavier , does it matter touring? Up to you but its definately lower than for racing.
    In summary, for a touring perspective, I would choose steel. Apart from corrosion(which can be prevented with products) and weight and impact strength, the balance of what features I would want in a touring bike side with steel which is longevity, ride quality(smoother), I have read stories of people ham fisted doing road side repairs where being able to cold work a frame(more specifically) stays is a biggie, the weight thing just isn’t a huge deal if you are packing pounds on to it and not racing.
    I think what may hamper ride quality of an aluminum bike designed for loaded touring is that you are forced to make the tubing perhaps a bit fatter to prevent the flex which is the fatigue eating away at it life span,effectively increasing the stiffness of the ride while steel appears to have more space to be tuned geo wise. This is only my impressions from what I have read and could very well be wrong about forcing the aluminum tubing to be larger in designs that demand less flex, an assumption and why aluminum has the reputation for a stiffer ride.
    Besides, I think steel frames look nicer.

  8. Lumberjake
    25th January 2015 at 7:08 am #

    Not sure exactly how relative this is but I would seriously suggest anyone on a budget but knows a bit about bikes( would build their own to save) that there is a huge amount of great quality steel bikes/frames from the 90s that were extremely well thought out and built as it was at a time when all the steel tubing makers were putting out quite technical stuff due to competition as were the bike makers them selves until the rug got pulled out with the whole aluminum take over.
    These mountain bikes could make a great basis for your own franken build touring bike so long as it fits and has the braze ons which, again, used to be something always included back then. Just don’t expect a place for extra spokes!

  9. Philip Northfield
    9th September 2016 at 9:31 pm #

    Hi I am planning a short tour from the uk down to my new house in Portugal 2600 miles round trip I have never done any touring before and was just intending to sling some panniers on my old cannondale bad boy which I have had for 10 years plus and I am guessing at least 10000 miles plus on commuting and even a couple of cross country runs in Wales between mountain bikes…. Other than the drive train brake blocks and tyres it’s never missed a beat am I an idiot or just tight…..but I figured if she dies I just get another one on route…what is the general consensus on this foolhardy idea…

  10. Accophytfbi
    20th November 2021 at 3:27 am #

  11. Accophyckhp
    20th November 2021 at 3:59 pm #

  12. Accophyslqo
    2nd December 2021 at 7:13 pm #

  13. Delhi sightseeing tour by car
    1st November 2022 at 10:43 pm #

    Really enjoyed this blog.Much thanks again. Great.

  14. camping in bangalore
    3rd November 2022 at 1:18 pm #

    Im obliged for the blog.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  15. jobgam
    8th November 2022 at 9:41 pm #

    Major thanks for the blog. Much obliged.

  16. pavers livermore
    14th November 2022 at 11:54 pm #

    Enjoyed every bit of your blog.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  17. Dabur Ayurvedic Medicine and Products
    6th December 2022 at 8:31 am #

    An employee toldFlorida Todaythe retailer has been inundatedwith telephone calls.

  18. comrezo
    16th December 2022 at 9:19 am #

    come ottenere bitcoin gratisbitcoin for live ce49fe5

  19. Proposal cover page Word
    19th December 2022 at 9:29 am #

    Direct Zentel Trichostrongyliasis In Internet With Free Shipping

  20. molo4nica.in.ua
    21st December 2022 at 1:45 pm #

    In my opinion it is obvious. You did not try to look in google.com?

  21. Moira Fraser
    5th January 2023 at 11:30 pm #

    plaquenil pregnancy side effects of plaquenil

  22. Blow molding machine
    10th January 2023 at 12:09 pm #

    Really enjoyed this blog post. Fantastic.

  23. ??????
    10th January 2023 at 2:02 pm #

    Hello. Interesting material! I’m really enjoy this. It will be great if you’ll read my first article on AP!) porngifs

  24. Melinda Kennedy
    10th January 2023 at 9:24 pm #

    peter lenguaje de programación película su juego de la monarquía actor con un ios

  25. Brenda Rodriguez
    3rd April 2023 at 11:39 am #

    Keep your posture low and make sure your shoulders are aligned over your feet.

  26. Thue Vest Da Hoi
    5th April 2023 at 9:30 am #

    ivermectin for pinworms in humans ivermectin medscape

  27. Bat hdpe
    5th April 2023 at 2:48 pm #

    ivermectin human: ivermectin – ivermectin nz

  28. mejortorrent
    6th April 2023 at 2:53 am #

    are bob marleys cigarrete papers made of hemp

  29. gameplay
    8th April 2023 at 1:05 am #

    187093 373825This is a very good common sense write-up. Quite useful to one who is just obtaining the resouces about this part. It will undoubtedly support educate me. 730053

  30. https://urbanepublications.com/
    8th April 2023 at 5:21 am #

    At this time I am going away to do my breakfast, when having my breakfastcoming over again to read more news.

  31. for more info
    9th April 2023 at 1:25 pm #

    most cosmetics today are made up of artificial products that can harm the skin, there are still few natural cosmetics on the market,

  32. bonuses includes
    13th April 2023 at 1:19 pm #

    Turoffnung Rallenbuschen, Tresoroffnung Rallenbuschen, Schlie?zylinder wechsel RallenbuschenSchlusseldienst Rallenbuschen Schlusseldienst Leistungen Rallenbuschen Schlusseldienst Rallenbuschen

  33. Botox Brisbane
    15th April 2023 at 12:05 pm #

    how to cite a book in an essaymla essay title formathow to write an informative essay

  34. spin
    21st April 2023 at 2:13 pm #

    “Who will see sis, right in this house there are only the two of us, nobody will see. If the massage is like this, it will be difficult for you too.

  35. binomo-tr.com
    22nd April 2023 at 9:04 am #

    So, you may recharge yourself by using carefully considered interiors.

  36. https://dlmodhack.net
    22nd April 2023 at 10:46 am #

    I like reading an article that can make people think. Also, thanks for allowing me to comment.

  37. https://apkchplay.com
    23rd April 2023 at 7:01 am #

    Thanks a lot to you, I actually learned something new. Give thanks anyone so much. We seem forward to working with you.

  38. Daman Game
    24th April 2023 at 11:03 am #

    I cannot thank you enough for the blog. Much obliged.

  39. Albert Fang
    26th April 2023 at 9:59 am #

    What an incredible way of looking at points.

  40. WE HELP YOU SOLVE THE PROBLEMS IN YOUR LIFE AND IN YOUR RELATIONSHIPS(Offices all over the UK)

  41. pvc transparent sheet
    8th May 2023 at 9:21 am #

    Really enjoyed this blog. Awesome.

  42. video games
    13th May 2023 at 10:49 pm #

    Well I sincerely liked studying it. This subject offered by you is very constructive for correct planning.

  43. Elaine Howells
    14th May 2023 at 11:24 am #

    Take the time to practice in front of a camera or mirror, or even with a friend orsignificant other.

  44. mang dien
    18th May 2023 at 2:11 pm #

    kars hava durumu 15 günlük; kars için hava durumu en güncel saatlik, günlük ve aylık tahminler.

  45. usa pharmacy india: all generic meds from india united pharmacy india

  46. reversing cameras
    29th May 2023 at 9:27 am #

    Motyvacija kaip tvai galt padti savo vaikams Gimtasis odis

  47. Reformas de pisos barcelona
    29th May 2023 at 11:54 pm #

    will certainly digg it and in my opinion recommend to

  48. Winterize Camper Near Me
    30th May 2023 at 7:02 pm #

    Be the best at every little thing you do!

  49. ChatGPT
    7th June 2023 at 1:21 pm #

    ivermectin human dosage ivermectin for lyme

  50. trading assets
    15th June 2023 at 11:36 pm #

    prednisolone acetate suspension prednisolone acetate corneal abrasion rx prednisolone acetate

  51. www.floridarepairninja.com
    19th June 2023 at 11:28 am #

    inglewood apartments rentberry scam ico 30m$ raised apartments in stockton ca

  52. 庇护律师
    21st June 2023 at 8:38 am #

    Wow, great blog. Keep writing.

  53. Lucretia Greenwood
    21st June 2023 at 7:58 pm #

    ivermectin dogs durvet ivermectin paste equine dewormer

  54. click this
    27th June 2023 at 8:52 pm #

    I appreciate you sharing this article. Awesome.

  55. Betty Thorne
    7th July 2023 at 4:32 pm #

    apartments for rent chino apartments in farmington nm bedford apartments

  56. Rosaleen Evans
    8th July 2023 at 6:03 pm #

    That is a great tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere.

  57. Biloxi Bounce House & Waterslides
    11th July 2023 at 12:06 am #

    is seroquel a mood stabilizer seroquel for sleep reviews

  58. xe dien cho be
    11th July 2023 at 6:23 am #

    To location a bet on Betiton, you will first require togenerate an account on our platform.

  59. motorhome frame alignment
    11th July 2023 at 10:38 am #

    The best product you will certainly ever before make use of.

  60. WIreless Earbuds
    11th July 2023 at 4:25 pm #

    I’m not quite sure how to say this; you made it extremely easy for me!

  61. Thaddeus Graham
    14th July 2023 at 5:24 pm #

    Whoa. Genius. You’re some sort of wizard. Thank you.

  62. 슬롯사이트블로그
    19th July 2023 at 12:04 pm #

    Great blog. Keep writing.

  63. prosolution+
    22nd July 2023 at 7:13 am #

    You have made the point!expository essay writing transfer college essays thesis writing service reviews

  64. restart apple watch
    25th July 2023 at 3:35 pm #

    Studying this information So i am glad to exhibit

  65. Luz Thibodaux
    30th July 2023 at 2:56 pm #

    Sie könnten sicher Ihre Expertise in der Arbeit sehen, die Sie schreiben. Die Welt hofft auf noch mehr leidenschaftliche Autoren wie Sie, die sich nicht scheuen, zu sagen, was sie glauben. Geh nach immer deinem Herzen.

  66. sushi da nang
    3rd August 2023 at 8:04 am #

    pretty valuable material, overall I believe this is well worth a bookmark, thanks

  67. xe o to dien tre em
    3rd August 2023 at 9:00 am #

    ivermectin otc ivermectin cream uk – ivermectin

  68. Miza Loki
    11th August 2023 at 7:38 pm #

    Greetings… your blog is very interesting and beautifully written.

  69. Miza Loki
    12th August 2023 at 1:04 am #

    Thank you for all the information was very accurate, just wondering if all this is possible.~

  70. fresno exotic dancers
    12th August 2023 at 12:55 pm #

    Are the issues really as complex as they seem?

  71. Vacuum blood collection tube
    12th August 2023 at 2:01 pm #

    Our local network of agencies has found your research so helpful.

  72. anthurium papillilaminum red stem
    14th August 2023 at 1:54 pm #

    Oh my goodness! an amazing article. Great work.

  73. nashville bachelor party strippers
    15th August 2023 at 8:03 am #

    We’re developing some community services to respond to this, and your blog is helpful.

  74. nashville exotic dancers
    15th August 2023 at 8:54 am #

    Like the way you’ve outlined things. Easy to follow. Not cluttered.

  75. Marylin Millett
    20th August 2023 at 1:11 am #

    7 methods to enhance your productivity and also amazingness!

  76. steve gibbs penticton british columbia
    22nd August 2023 at 8:41 am #

    This blog post is excellent, probably because of how well the subject was developed. I like some of the comments too.

  77. steve gibbs penticton british columbia
    22nd August 2023 at 9:09 am #

    Public policy is key here, and our states need to develop some strategies – – soon.

  78. van diepen van der kroef
    22nd August 2023 at 8:56 pm #

    It’s time for communities to rally.

  79. mp3 juice downloader
    24th August 2023 at 6:41 pm #

    Thanks for discussing the issues and covering them in a well written format.

  80. steve gibbs alberta
    24th August 2023 at 7:12 pm #

    Our communities really need to deal with this.

  81. PVC Rope
    27th August 2023 at 5:06 am #

    Thanks so much for the post. Really Cool.

  82. Beatles
    28th August 2023 at 7:21 am #

    Fantastic facts. Appreciate it.college essay paper essay writer executive resume writing service seattle

  83. obituaries
    30th August 2023 at 2:30 am #

    Funerals and the first social network dedicated to the death and dying. https://www.sysoon.com

  84. Top chatbots platform
    30th August 2023 at 11:21 am #

    Wow. Wizard. You’re a wizard. Give thanks to you.

  85. taxi pictou
    1st September 2023 at 1:30 pm #

    Do you offer workshops?

  86. Bulk Extreme
    4th September 2023 at 9:32 am #

    Wow, great blog.Much thanks again. Really Great.

  87. Bhima Raju Phani Raju
    5th September 2023 at 6:57 pm #

    hydroxychloroquine warnings online doctor to prescribe hydroxychloroquine

  88. plant based diet for beginners
    6th September 2023 at 6:40 pm #

    This has to be one of my favorite posts! And on top of thats its also very helpful topic for newbies. thank a lot for the information!

  89. dewibola
    9th September 2023 at 3:20 pm #

    Our family had similar issues, thanks.

  90. Led street lights
    9th September 2023 at 3:47 pm #

    The start of a fast-growing trend?

  91. dewibola
    9th September 2023 at 7:25 pm #

    How long does it take you to write an article like this?

  92. home wifi viettel
    12th September 2023 at 9:44 am #

    burbank apartments rentberry scam ico 30m$ raised how to take apart an xbox controller

  93. busanholdem.info
    15th September 2023 at 4:41 am #

    You ma’am have a way with words. Thank you very much!

  94. irontech doll
    19th September 2023 at 12:39 am #

    Im thankful for the post. Will read on…

  95. Eddie Hutchison police
    21st September 2023 at 1:43 pm #

    I cannot thank you more than enough for the blogposts on your website. I know you set a lot of time and energy into these and truly hope you know how deeply I appreciate it. I hope I’ll do a similar thing person sooner or later.

  96. Jordon Churchill
    22nd September 2023 at 12:01 am #

    Your blog post is an important contribution to the online area.

  97. Wash basin table top tap
    24th September 2023 at 8:52 am #

    This article actually helped me with a report I was doing.

  98. Minoo Welding Gun
    24th September 2023 at 2:40 pm #

    Thank you ever so for you blog.Much thanks again. Great.

  99. Varanasi tour packages from Delhi
    25th September 2023 at 6:54 am #

    Keep it up!. I usually don’t post in Blogs but your blog forced me to, amazing work.. beautiful A rise in An increase in An increase in.

  100. coffe table desk
    25th September 2023 at 7:22 am #

    Your shipping was very fast and the materials did not cut corners for us. Outdoor Convenient Coffee Table

  101. collagen tablets
    28th September 2023 at 9:59 am #

    A colleague in the field told me to check out your website.

  102. Thanks again for the post. Much obliged.

  103. 私密除毛
    3rd October 2023 at 7:17 pm #

    A thoughtful insight and ideas I will use on my blog. You’ve obviously spent some time on this. Congratulations

  104. 私密除毛
    3rd October 2023 at 9:08 pm #

    Please let us know when you plan to publish your book!

  105. Suction cup butt plug
    7th October 2023 at 1:30 pm #

    Appreciation for taking the time to discuss this topic, I would love to discover more on this topic. If viable, as you gain expertise, would you object to updating the website with further information? It is tremendously beneficial for me.

  106. Huazhijun lab bench
    8th October 2023 at 12:12 am #

    I value the blog.Much thanks again. Really Great.

  107. A-Esthetic
    10th October 2023 at 5:10 am #

    Like the way you’ve outlined things. Easy to follow. Not cluttered.

  108. wolf dildos
    10th October 2023 at 7:56 pm #

    I love what you’ve created here, this is definitely one of my favorite sites to visit.

  109. cameroun info net
    10th October 2023 at 9:59 pm #

    My issues have been very similar, with my family. But, we made some different decisions. It’s complex.

  110. Dor123
    12th October 2023 at 7:58 am #

    It’s time for communities to rally.

  111. Situs Terpercaya
    12th October 2023 at 7:51 pm #

    A very informationrmative story and lots of really honest and forthright comments made! This certainly got me thinking about this issue, thank all.

  112. Advance esthetic
    13th October 2023 at 10:22 am #

    A wholly agreeable point of view, I think primarily based on my own experience with this that your points are well made, and your analysis on target.

  113. Zemits Expert
    15th October 2023 at 7:36 pm #

    My issues have been very similar, with my family. But, we made some different decisions. It’s complex.

  114. www.advance-esthetic.us
    16th October 2023 at 8:50 am #

    Thanks pertaining to discussing the following superb written content on your site. I ran into it on the search engines. I will check back again if you publish extra aricles.

  115. Cua Nhua Composite
    16th October 2023 at 10:12 am #

    Write my nursing paper papersonlinebox.com paper writing help

  116. Casino Casino
    16th October 2023 at 6:22 pm #

    I’ll check back after you publish more articles.

  117. Slots Casino Poker
    16th October 2023 at 6:38 pm #

    Thanks for discussing the issues and covering them in a well written format.

  118. yoga in goa
    16th October 2023 at 8:17 pm #

    Thanks so much for this, keep up the good work 🙂

  119. Zaragoza reformas
    25th October 2023 at 6:53 pm #

    What a great article.. i subscribed btw!

  120. Ladies Underwear Manufacturers Bangladesh
    26th October 2023 at 7:34 am #

    Val is dead. Helpless, but enjoying the helplessness at the same time. Arya finally licked the small protruding part, squeezing it with the tip of her tongue, twirling and sliding it.

  121. Wärmepumpen Pornos
    27th October 2023 at 7:26 pm #

    This is something that will need all of our combined efforts to address.

  122. https://www.etransaxle.com
    3rd November 2023 at 12:34 pm #

    Im obliged for the article. Really Cool.

  123. Dongguan Yuehou
    5th November 2023 at 2:07 pm #

    Thanks again for the blog.Much thanks again.

  124. spirituality
    13th November 2023 at 7:38 pm #

    This will be helpful for my family.

  125. dresses
    15th November 2023 at 5:10 am #

    I do believe your audience could very well want a good deal more stories like this carry on the excellent hard work.

  126. hoodies
    15th November 2023 at 5:16 am #

    Substantially, the post is really the best on this laudable topic. I concur with your conclusions and will eagerly watch forward to your future updates.Just saying thanx will not just be enough, for the wonderful lucidity in your writing.

  127. affordable fashion
    15th November 2023 at 5:31 am #

    Amazing content on your website.

  128. t-shirts
    15th November 2023 at 5:37 am #

    Our local network of agencies has found your research so helpful.

  129. boys clothing
    15th November 2023 at 7:40 am #

    This is my first time i visit here. I found so many helpful stuff in your website especially its discussion. From the tons of responses on your posts, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! keep up the excellent work

  130. Music Downloader
    19th November 2023 at 11:52 am #

    Im obliged for the blog.Much thanks again. Cool.

  131. 舒茨盾
    1st December 2023 at 8:05 pm #

    Magnificent beat ! Can I be your apprentice? Just kidding!

  132. 葡兰
    1st December 2023 at 8:34 pm #

    It’s clear you’re passionate about the issues.

  133. Best IP-TV
    1st December 2023 at 9:36 pm #

    This contained some excellent tips and tools. Great blog publication.

  134. PLAN B KRYPTO ASSETS (PLAN)
    1st December 2023 at 9:59 pm #

    A colleague in the field told me to check out your website.

  135. buy windows server 2022
    2nd December 2023 at 1:33 am #

    Really enjoyed this post. Fantastic.

Leave a comment