10 Questions: Cycling The Pamir Highway

Cycling The Pamir Highway (in November) Tajikistan’s Pamir Highway is one of the world’s most famous routes for the adventurous bicycle tourist. Its stunning scenery is rewarding, and the challenging terrain can be a true test of your endurance.

Because of the high altitudes and extreme climate, most people tackle this route through Central Asia in the more temperate summer months, but a few brave souls show up on the edge of winter – as Christine McDonald did.

In this edition of 10 Questions, she shares her experiences of cycling the Pamir Highway in November.

1. The Pamir Highway is quite a challenging ride; how did you prepare for the trip?

The truth is that we didn’t! We flew into Kyrgyzstan hoping to get a Chinese visa there and ride across the Tibetan plateau, but because it was the year of the Olympics in Beijing, we weren’t able to get visas. At that point, we hadn’t even heard of the Pamir highway. I don’t remember where I read it, but somewhere it was written that “the Pamir Highway is like the Karakorum highway on steroids.” That was what made our minds up.

In terms of gear, we were well-prepared for rough roads and cold mountain weather since those were always part of the plan. We had heavy down sleeping bags, down coats, gore-tex jackets and mittens. Our bikes were rugged mountain bikes and we hauled Bob trailers instead of using panniers as these help take the stress off the back wheel of the bike and let you pile a pretty much unlimited load of stuff on top!

Cycling The Pamir Highway In November
This beautiful morning ride followed the coldest night of the trip: -14°C.

The bureaucracy was a bit of a hassle, especially trying to get a Tajik visa in Kyrgystan.

First, finding the Tajik embassy on a bike, using only sign language to ask directions, was an adventure in itself. Then, finding it actually open was a hassle and on our many trips there, we often waited for a long time before someone showed up to help us. And, finally, you need a letter of invitation from a tour operator in Tajikistan in order to get the visa. Getting this ended up being a bit of an exercise in trust as we had to wire money to a complete stranger and hope that he followed through with sending the letter to the embassy.

This whole process took us a week so I strongly recommend to anyone planning to travel in Tajikistan to get the visa before they arrive in the area!

2. Why did you decide to go in November? Wasn’t it quite cold?

My cycling partner and I both work as forest fire fighters in Canada during the summer and our season ends in September. That means that fall is the best time for us to go touring. It’s not ideal for trips in much of the northern hemisphere, but we’ve tried hard not to let it hold us back. It was very cold and we spent several days riding through snow. Our coldest night was -14°C.

3. What condition is the road in? Is it unpaved road the whole way?

Christine in her replacement “gore-tex” from a Kyrgyz market.

We were actually very impressed by the quality of the Pamir highway. About 85% of it is paved. There are a lot of potholes, but these are easy to dodge on a bike and they keep traffic from going too fast. I should say, though, that if someone is reading this and trying to gauge how far they might ride in a day, other factors will affect your daily mileage, including the altitude (you’ve only got half the oxygen as at sea level to work with) and the wind, which can really rip across the open plateau. It had us seeking shelter in culverts under the road at times!

The road quality elsewhere in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, however, is pretty rough. The road from Khorog towards Dushanbe (a national highway) is a very rough gravel track carved into the mountainside overlooking the Panj River into Afghanistan. You’re actually close enough to throw a rock into Afghanistan! It has frequent rock-falls. It is incredible to watch transport trucks try to pass one another on the narrow ledge and no way to squeeze a bike through as they do.

4. What about services en route? How often would you come across small towns or shops, and how much food and water did you carry on average?

The lack of services is one of the most challenging aspects of riding the Pamir highway and elsewhere in rural Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. We often had to carry 4 days worth of food with us. Water, fortunately, was fairly easy to find and as long we stopped to refill our bottles at every opportunity (including two litres for dinner and breakfast), we never ran out. We used a Steri-pen to treat water from lakes, creeks and community wells.

Every small village has a store, but they are often in someone’s home and do not have a sign so we always had to ask around to find them. In the small stores, we were able to get enough dry goods (lots of packaged cookies!) to get by. Families quite often sell fresh bread and cheese or butter as well. Local honey was easy to come by and delicious and we had it almost daily on our bread for lunch. Fruits and vegetables could only be found in larger centres at a market so we always bought and carried lots of these.

Cycling The Pamir Highway In November
A typical Pamir town. This is Karakol.

5. What was the most challenging part for you?

Cycling The Pamir Highway In NovemberThe cold! Especially after the bag that I kept my down coat, gore-tex jacket, toque and mittens in was stolen. I ended up restocking from the market in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and wore fuzzy pyjamas in place of down and a heavy military rubber coat in place of gore-tex. It did the trick, but made me appreciate our technical gear from home!

The cold created more challenges, too. In the mornings, our derailleur cables were often frozen so we were stuck in whatever cycling gear we had ended in the day before until things thawed out again. It was also hard to keep our water from freezing. We would sometimes keep it in our sleeping bags, but it felt like it sucked all the warmth out of the bag and resulted in a lousy sleep.

The other big challenge was the language barrier. Simple things like finding a place to stay, buying food and asking for directions were difficult. In one road-side restaurant, we tried to order a pot of green tea and ended up with a whole cooked chicken and a loaf of bread!

In a few situations, not being able to communicate led to some uncomfortable moments, like when a man with a gun who smelled like vodka showed up on his horse at our camping spot after dark.

6. And the most rewarding?

The views along the Pamir highway are absolutely incredible. I can’t do it justice with words, but the vastness and emptiness of it are amazing. Doing it late in the season and dealing with cold and snow was also rewarding in a way that I think many other cycle tourists would understand.

Cycling The Pamir Highway In November
Karakol Lake. One of many spectacular views from the Pamir Highway.

7. Did you find the people generally welcoming?

Interacting with the people of the Pamir was very special. We had many long sign-language conversations with people who stopped us along the road to give us an apple or invite us in for tea. We joked that if we accepted every invitation for tea in Tajikistan, we never would have made it anywhere!

8. Was there anything that you took but wouldn’t take again, or (vice versa) something you should have taken but didn’t?

I didn’t know that they existed at the time (and maybe they didn’t yet), but a SPOT GPS tracker would have saved both us and our families at home some stress. Contacting family members at home was very difficult. Internet was non-existent and phones were few and far between, and sometimes out of order when we did find them. A SPOT, which we’ll take on our next trip for sure, uses GPS technology to let you send pre-set messages home to let people know that things are ok.

As far as something I wouldn’t take next time, well…I didn’t need that tank top….

Cycling The Pamir Highway In November
Welcome to Tajikistan. It’s a heck of a climb to get there, but worth it!

9. Is there any option to throw your bike on a bus, if something happens and you can’t or don’t want to cycle the whole way?

There were no buses travelling the Pamir highway in November (and not many buses in either country at all) but anyone with a vehicle can be hired to drive you where you need to go if you’re desperate. Unfortunately, these rides aren’t cheap. We got a ride in an ancient Russian Jeep (the driver had to go get the battery out of the house because it also powered their am radio) on the Pamir highway and paid about a dollar a kilometre.

Hitchhiking, on the other hand, costs very little or nothing if you have time to wait for trucks to pass. Keep in mind we only saw 3-5 vehicles per day on the Pamir highway, but more elsewhere in the country. We had to hitch into Dushanbe to catch our flight home and ended up being taken in by a convoy of Tajik truckers who wouldn’t accept anything from us and even bought us lunch.

10. One piece of advice for people who want to do this route?

Pack a good sense of adventure and some warm clothes, but do it!

Thanks to Christine for answering 10 Questions and sharing pictures of her bicycle tour along the Pamir Highway.

If you’d like to answer 10 Questions about a favourite cycling destination, read the guidelines and then get in touch.


  1. Eleanor Moseman
    21st October 2011 at 9:45 am #

    This is the most resourceful and excellent 10 questions I’ve read in awhile. Thanks travellingtwo!!!

  2. Zac
    24th October 2011 at 4:06 pm #

    I’m doing the Pamir Highway next summer as part of my world tour…I expect it to be one of the toughest bits but can’t wait! Very interesting and helpful 10 questions, although I think you’re crazy for doing it in November!

  3. Doug Meikle
    30th October 2011 at 6:37 am #

    Inspirational sense of adventure there Christine and thanks to travelling two for sharing your story!

    Shame you had such a hassle with visas – we managed to get some from the Bishkek embassy with no trouble at all in July of that year. There was no requirement for a letter of introduction either – we only had to provide a description of our proposed itinerary and a list of all the oblasts(regions/provinces)we wanted to visit. We managed to find the embassy easily enough using a guidebook and a taxi. One visit to apply and a return visit five or six days after that to collect. I guess things have changed….

    Zac reckons you were crazy for going in November, but we met several cyclists doing it in July/August and they were being roasted to a crisp and struggling with dehydration under the high altitude sun. Hardship all ’round! But definitely worth it :-}

  4. Roel
    6th May 2012 at 4:17 pm #

    Thanks Christine, this is helpful for my next cycling trip. I also appreciate the website of Andrew and Friedel, whom I met during cycling tours with the ‘Wereldfietser’. Your information is very good and to the point, with nice pics and videos.

  5. Peter and Mary
    10th November 2012 at 12:31 pm #

    Hey Christine, thanks for the info!

    We (like millions of others) lapped up so much information from the Travelling Two before we started out trip. We’ve been on the road for about sixteen months now and have made it all the way to China (Sichuan Province) from Guernsey, UK. We cycled through the Pamirs in July/ August and it was absolutely amazing! We’ve just finished making a film about our Central Asian escapades, which is now on our site – http://www.twoonfourwheels.com/archives/2344

    To anyone else planning on heading that way, you’ll have an amazing time!

  6. Philip Ravicher
    2nd October 2013 at 3:56 pm #

    Just back from the Pamirs. The following may be interesting to those who are going:

    1. Tajikistan visa now obtainable at Dushanbe Airport for almost all nationalities. No invitation required. Allow 1 hour for this formality.

    2. GBAO permit is easily obtainable at a cost of $2 from OVIR in Dushanbe. There are dozens of foreigners around this office every day and they will explain the process to you. GBAO permit is issued on the same day.

    3. Flight to Khorog does not take bikes. It’s a small aircraft. Jeep to Khorog will cost 250 Somoni ($50) per person and takes 15 hours.

    4. Going up from Khorog, accommodation is available in every village. Pamiris are very hospitable and will not usually charge you for anything. However, be aware, the hygene standards are poor and every single cyclist we met got food poisoning at one point or another.

    5. Every cyclists we have met, every single one, had suffered from AMS (Altitude sickness) on the Pamirs. This is a VERY serious issue, especially from Alichur onwards where you will be on a 4000m plateau with nowhere to descend. We have seen people coughing up blood and loosing conciseness. AMS seems to have serious effect on cyclists due to the physical effort of going up the passes. DO NOT CAMP AT THE PASSES, YOU WILL GET SERIOUSLY ILL. Carry Diamox and descend back to Khorog if ill at Jelandy or above. No medical help is available after Khorog. Local doctors do not know what AMS is. After 5pm there is no traffic in either direction.

    5. Road conditions:

    Road from Khorog up until the first pass is good tarmac. The last 200m of the first pass is loose gravel, once over the pass you are still at 4000m and it’s gravel, the descent to the first lake and Alichur is mixed gravel and tarmac. After Alichur is good tarmac to Murghab. From Murghab it’s good tarmac until Ak-Baital pass where is is gravel again for the last 300m (steep). Kyzyl-Art pass is steep gravel and the descent is really bad (advisable to get a ride down to Kyrgyz border). On the Kyrgyz side the new road with perfect tarmac is open all the way to Osh and East to Irkeshtam.

  7. Rob
    8th December 2013 at 6:30 am #

    Good one. I guess Canadians are best qualified for a winter tour!
    I’d be interested to know how the home-stay situation has changed. When I was there in 2008, there weren’t many (but endless hospitality).
    Did you get the impression that cyclists were welcome, and making a bit of a contribution to Pamir?

  8. James Frome
    11th March 2014 at 4:33 pm #

    Some pockets of information on here of our Pamir ride in winter – January / February – may be interesting. It was very cold (usually -20) but sunny all the time from Khorog through the Wakhan and up to Murghab.

  9. serbring
    23rd September 2014 at 12:46 am #

    thanks for the great information you provided. Is the area safe or it’s necessary to be careful?

  10. serbring
    23rd September 2014 at 12:50 am #


    Is a ciclocross bike good enough for the road?

  11. Ed Shoote
    13th November 2015 at 10:26 am #

    We found this a really useful guide for our trip to the Pamirs last month. It’s a lot safer and easier than you might imagine, so I wrote an updated piece to help anyone else planning a trip out there in the near future:

  12. Priyo Papataqiy
    17th November 2015 at 9:16 am #

    How many kilometer per day both of you take every day.

    How many in total distance is your journey, and how many day were you take.

    We are from indonesia n have plan to make a grand tour across the Pamir Higway


  13. Miranda
    25th July 2017 at 11:40 am #

    Thanks Christine- this is an incredibly helpful article! We have had some visa issues with Iran so are having to change out route dramatically and will be cycling from Kazakhstan through to Kyrgystan in October/November. This post has put our minds at ease!

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